Orthognathic SurgeryOrthognathic surgery or jaw surgery is the procedure whereby either surgery is done on one or both jaws to reposition the jaws. Orthognathic surgery is aimed at correcting jaw alignment and occlusion in achieing facial harmony. When the jaws are moved forwards or backwards, up or down, or rotated, the facial soft tissue in the chin, cheeks, lips and tip of the nose move accordingly.
Orthognathic surgery is surgery performed on the bones of the jaws to change their positions. Orthognathic surgery is corrective facial surgery where deformities of the jaw exist. It may be indicated for functional, cosmetic, or health reasons. It is surgery commonly done on the jaws in conjunction with orthodontic treatment, which straightens the teeth.
Pre-operative planning is crucial to the success of the procedure and evaluates the surgical and orthodontic options. The surgeon chooses the type of mandibular surgery based on his experience, evaluation of the photographic and cephalometric analysis, and model surgery.
Orthognathic surgery is often delayed until after all of the permanent teeth have erupted unless medical conditions necessitate that the surgery be performed earlier. In adult patients, orthognathic surgery can be combined with soft tissue contouring to improve the aesthetic results.
Effects of Malocclusion
Malocclusion impedes jaw function and does not allow proper chewing of food and exert negative influence on food digestion and overall body health. Crowding of teeth aggravates oral hygiene maintenance and increases likelyhood of dental caries and periodontal disease
Malocclusion teeth may wear out faster and dental prostheses wear may be shorten.
Severe skeletal malocclusions caused by jaw mismatch in size and position may cause serious problems including
- snoring and sleep apnea
- undesirable mouth breathing
- negative effect on speech function
- jaw joint pain
- affects overall facial profile aesthetics
Below are some of the conditions that may indicate the need for corrective jaw surgery. Always consult your dentists before determining if jaw surgery is suited or required for your case:
- difficulty chewing, or biting food
- difficulty swallowing
- chronic jaw or jaw joint (TMJ) pain and headache
- excessive wear of the teeth
- significant open bite
- unbalanced facial appearance from the front, or side
- facial injury or birth defects
- receding chin
- protruding jaw
- inability to make the lips meet without straining
- chronic mouth breathing and dry mouth
- sleep apnea (breathing problems when sleeping, including snoring)
Orthodontic treatment normally correct bites and problems with misaligned teeth, corrective jaw surgery may be to used to correct misalignment of the jaws.
Correct Jaw Alignment Conditions
Benefits of Orthognathic Treatment
- Corrects and balances facial and dentation
- Improves function, health, and appearance
- Enables better biting and chewing on food
- Close your lips together in certain caes
- May improve speech
- Prevents jaw joint disorder (TMJ) issues
- improves quality of life
Procedure for Orthognathic Surgery
Orthognathic treatment takes is a complex and time consuming process that can take up to two years or more to complete. It consists of several stages and involves surgery as well as orthodontic treatment. The patient must clearly decide and understand once orthognathic treatment is started, the treatment is extremely difficult to reverse or switch to a non-surgical treatment.
- Preoperative diagnosis and planning
- All dental specialists involved including orthodontist, oral and maxillofacial surgeon plans and diagnosis
- All findings are analyzed and pre-surgical model surgery performed to ascertain the feasibility of various treatment options
- Pre-surgical orthodontics
- Pre-surgical orthodontics may be necessary to straighten the teeth and align the arches so that a stable occlusion can be obtained post-operatively; orthodontic treatment may lasting between 18 to 24 months
- The maxillary surgery is done
- Pre-operation preparation such as health check and labworks are done
- orthognatic surgery is done under general anaethesia
- Post-surgical orthodontics
- Orthodontics following surgery are frequently required to revise minor occlusal discrepancies that be last for about 6 months or more
- Once the braces are removed, selected teeth may require other restorations such as dental implants or cowns leading up to the desired occlussion and facial profile
The length of recovery in the hospital may vary from one to three days following surgery. During the week following surgery, activities should be limited. All strenuous activities and heavy exercise should be avoided the first month after surgery. Swelling is common, and a brief period of facial discoloration is possible.